How Can You Determine If There is Abuse and/or Neglect?

This bird is covered in nicotine stains and was removed, along with other birds, from a rescue.  Immediate vet attention noted malnutrition, broken toes, and for this bird, nicotine exposure and withdrawal.

The following PDF is a great download of what abuse and neglect looks like.  Click and open. posted the information.  Please note, while this is a good reference, we are not affiliated with the Avian Welfare Coalition or any other large groups.  This is for educational purposes only.